Iron is actually a bright, shiny and white soft metal that can be easily mulled. But normally its surface is discolored by corrosion. In the presence of moisture, iron combines readily with oxygen in the air. It is found in nature as the metal only in meteorites and in very rare circumstances where iron minerals have been reduced by environmental factors. In practice iron usually is obtained from ores which contains oxides, occasionally carbonate and sulphur and phosphorus as low as possible.
Iron comes with atomic number 26 and atomic weight 55.85. Iron is in the middle of transition metals of the periodic table. Iron remains in ferrite or α-iron from in room temperature. The density of body-centered cubic structure α-iron is 7.86 g/cc but at 910°C it turns to face-centered cubic γ-iron. Iron melts at 1535°C and to boil it needs 3000°C. The thermal conductivity of iron is 3.37 and their electrical resistivity is 9.71.
Iron metal is very good at electricity and heat conduction. Iron makes most useful alloys with cobalt and nickel and three of them contain so much common in physical properties. Iron occurs as the cations Fe++, ferrous iron, and Fe+++, ferric iron. Iron is a very good reducing agent because of its atomic structure and electron giving nature.
Usually irons oxides are ferrous oxide, FeO and ferric oxide, Fe2O3. Ferrous oxide is presented as Fe3O4 which comes as a hard black substance and an important ore of iron, magnetite.
Iron compounds can be different in colors like ferrous ion is greenish in solution and ferric ion is light violet. The d-electrons interact with light in interesting way and display different colors in different situations.
Iron is the best metal for weapons and tools building. Iron also does the important works of our body ferromagnetism and oxygen transport in the blood.